Daniel J. Solove: The Future of Reputation Gossip Rumor and Privacy on the Internet



Just ike in the book The Narcissism Epidemic Living in the Age of Entitlementmentioned people nowadays consider that Silent Hunter losing their cell phone to be connected is severe thanosing their virginity They could do whatever to become famous That explain per The Future of Repuptation gossip rumor and privacy on the internet written by Daniel J Solove talks about internet vigilantism and gossip aims to dissect exactly why we shame people on the internet and how it s so easy to do with the antiuated views of privacy with which the Smoky Mountain Sweethearts (Otter Lake Ranger Station law operates When you do something in public it is considered in the public sphere However you might be inclined to do something that breaks social norms in public for example speakoudly on your cell phone in public because you believe only the people around you will get slightly annoyed and you will never see them again so why not But then what if one day you are speaking too Her Perfect Man loudly near someone who has had it withoud cell phone users and uses his or her own phone to record your conversation And then the next thing you know there s a viral video of you on the subway yapping into your phone about how your evil mother in In the Brazilians Debt (Hot Brazilian Nights! law has been driving you absolutely insane and it has millions of views You did it in public but it s a private conversation and you didn t consent to being filmed is your privacy being violated According to theaw it s not In his first chapter Solove introduces the concept by telling the story of a young woman whose dog pooped on a subway in South Korea When other train riders asked her to clean up after her dog she told them to mind their own business and then didn t clean it up People then took a couple of pictures and started to complain about her dog poop girl and the story uickly went viral People were outraged identifying the girl became a top priority and when she finally was recognized the public shaming and embarrassment she felt resulted in her dropping out of her university Dropping out As Solove points out not picking up your dog s poop is bad behavior in most people s books but was the reaction to her transgression appropriate And he raises a really good point we have all committed some minor indiscretion at some point in our Once Upon a Christmas lives Maybe coughed on a crowded subway and didn t cover your mouth or maybe you aren t the best driver and cut some poor soul off in your hurry to work Maybe you were feeling a bit of financial stress one day and tippedess than 15% at a restaurant We ve all done something that we shouldn t have done but decided to do it anyway because it was so minor and because we were sure that in that instance we would never be caught So yes it is annoying and distasteful for an individual to bring their dog on the subway and then fail to pick up after them when they poop in this public space but is it going too far to transform this girl into the notorious evil dog poop girl in international The Daddy Secret limelight After beginning the book with the story of dog poop girl Solove goes on to discuss how the blogosphere bothiberates and constrains us how gossiping has been transformed by the internet and how it s all Drop Dead Gorgeous (Harlequin Blaze, lead to wide scale public shaming He begins by explaining that a huge part of the problem with controlling privacy and the internet is the antiuated way in which theaw views privacy and that is private vs public space once something is in public domain it can no Claiming the Cowboys Heart (Cowboys of Eden Valley, longer be considered private Basically if you want absolute privacy you can nevereave your house for anything If you want to buy a box of tampons but want no one to know well I guess you can never buy tampons ever again The way the A Mothers Wish (Wed In The West, law deals with confidentiality in the United States is thatiability is Hot Lawyers (Grace Poole limited doctors andawyers cannot breach confidentiality but anything you tell anyone else is fair game Essentially you are assuming the risk that people will betray you Solove and that if you are in a public place you cannot expect nor assume privacy If you disclose information to someone else you cannot assume confidentiality Solove mentioned several cases of people photographed and video taped without their permission and suing only to Miranda lose the case because they were filmed in public and therefore their actions wereeft open to the public eye Essentially if you re in public and exposing what you re doing to others than you have no right to claim privacy Solove continues on to call us Generation Google a generation that has search engines at our finger tips at all hours Information is Marry Me, Baby limitless and it s possible to find everything about anything with a few choice search terms While can seem unbelievably freeing it can also become incredibly daunting when you re the subject that s being searched What s worse is that oftentimes context isn t included in the information you find online For example Solove mentions a website that postsicense plates and vehicle descriptions of people who use the carpool Forgotten Mistress, Secret Love-Child (Regally Wed, lane in primetime traffic It publicly shames them and exposes private identifying information but what if there s a child in the car that the accuser can t see What if they just found out their mother was in the hospital and decided just this once to skip normal traffic to uickly be with herThis is a good segue way to the very thoroughly discussed topic of public shaming why is it present in society and does it have a rightful place Solove explains how social norms while not enforceable via theaw are still important for society to function To revisit my earlier example it is rude to speak Willingly Bedded, Forcibly Wedded loudly on your cell phone in public Publicly shaming someone by calling them out for their rude behavior can remind individuals that they are breaking social norms and can embarrass them just enough toearn to abide by and respect social norms Most public shaming is fleeting just The Trust Imperative like you might think it s okay to use your phone because you will never see the people you annoy ever again public shaming is seen as acceptable because after the embarrassing moment passes no one will remember it there is no permanent record other than the one in your memory But when a video is placed on the internet and it goes viral much of that goes out the window The anonymity of the internet causes its users to react in exaggerated ways Users claiming the people they see breaking norms over the web deserve punishment and they go out of their way to identify them and harass them Like in the story of the dog poop girl the online vigilantes identified her and the worldwide shaming and harassment she received caused her to drop out of sch The Future of Reputation is thoughtful and thankfully devoid of the get off my yard ranting that many books on the future of the internet fall into For anyone that has read and hated The Culture of the Amateur you re safeSolove discusses privacy and rumor from aegal standpoint rather than as a culture critic It gives the reader a rational objective discussion of the conseuences of a fast paced post first edit Christmas Countdown (Lost-Inc., later mediaandscape when sources are considered bonuses rather than reuirements All of which Solve analyzes with plenty of evidence caselaw and anecdotesPerhaps that s why its so surprising that this book misses both the Clay Yeagers Redemption (Trinity Street West, landmark internetawsuits involving Tucker Max who was sued for writing graphically online about a sexual encounter with Miss Vermont and for harassing a rich heir to a farming fortune through an internet messageboard Both cases fall right into the wheelhouse of the book but are not mentioned even though their precedence was critical The ACLU filed an amicus brief in oneIn 2009 this book is two years old a bit dated and missing some crucial material but is otherwise an interesting read AN ABSOLUTE MUST READThis book will forever remain on my shelf as the topics it approaches reputation gossip and privacy on the Internet will continue to be debated for years to come When the author uses the term privacy he isn t relating to the idea of protecting your cell phone or address on Facebook though both are good ideas What he relates is the idea of privacy itself When you do something in public even if it violates a social norm for instance scratching your bum you may be slightly embarrassed but you assume only the people around you will notice But imagine a photo is taken posted on the Internet and you are forever abeled The Ass Scratcher Is that a violation of your privacy Solove argues that our current binary classification no onger is appropriate We should no The Corporate Raiders Revenge (Suite Secrets, longer operate according to Public or Private assuming anything we share with any single person or do outside of our own home is Public and therefore to be shared with everyone If you have a send a personal e mail to a friend should that e mail be shared with the world Or do you consider that e mail to be your private correspondence Unfortunately theaw currently says anything you share with anyone few exceptions clergy doctors spouses but NOT your children or parents is public There is no distinction between sharing it with close friends or with the entire world And yet we instinctively believe there are differences between what we share with different social networks friends co workers family etcBut Solove rightly points out that the Internet crosses social networks Whereas before I could share something with my social network and while a friend of mine may share with one of their friends that I don t know it s Course of Action likely to be ofess interest to that person since they don t know me IF the story continued to spread it would be because of the interest of the story not because it happened to me particularly and thus my name would Christmas Masquerades likely beeft out But the Internet allows for the sharing of stories WITH the particular details name to thousands or millions of people in an instant And through the use of Google it is accessible for the foreseeable future Thus something I share with a close friend they may blog and that post may get Skylars Outlaw linked to by a bigger blog and begins to spread Thirty years from now a Google search on my name may turn up this story that I assumed would be privateThink for a moment of an embarrassing moment you had either in public or in private Even in public without the Internet the story would onlyast as Blades Lady long as the memory of the people around you and if they didn t know who you are the story wouldn t attach to you But because of the unending memory of the Internet the record of that story will remain forever How do you feel about that What if the moment captured is taken out of context You don t have the opportunity to respond to everyone who sees that moment and explain the full context Your reputation can be ruined in a momentThis book is an extremely important read It s not a book working to convince you to change your privacy settings on Facebook Rather it makes us think harder about what we feel is appropriate to share and how the Internet is changing these attitudes More importantly it s showing how the Internet is changing what is being shared with or without our knowledge and regardless of our attitude on the topic We need to seriously uestion how our reputation can be affected by the actions of others on the Internet and ways to placeimits on what is public and what is private and understand the gray area between those two poles AN ABSOLUTE MUST READ This book was surprisingly relevant for a book published in 2007 perhaps fresh now than it would have seemed a couple years ago given the conversations that are being had around harassment and bullying That said I would have given it another star if it weren t for the fact that all of the examples are uite dated note that the author does have newer books That said many of the concerns read as fresh The Learning Yii Testing lasting nature of information on the internet and the way that it can spread so uickly can wreak havoc on the reputation and well being of individuals But the internet has at its core principles of free speech Solove argues that while free speech is absolutely fundamental to individualiberty and autonomy and to a well functioning soci. Teeming with chatrooms online discussion groups and blogs the Internet offers previously unimagined opportunities for personal expression and communication But there’s a dark side to the story A trail of information fragments about us is forever preserved on the Internet instantly available in a Google search A permanent chronicle of our private ives often of dubious reliability and sometimes totally false will follow us wherever we go acc.

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E responsibility When we talk about others we affect non only their reputation but ours as well If a person gossips about inappropriate things betrays confidences spreads false rumors and ies then her own reputation is ikely to suffer pg 141 When people can avoid being identified they can slip away from their bad reputations If entry and exit are too easy commitment trustworthiness and reciprocity will not develop In other words anonymity inhibits the process by which reputations are formed which can have both good and bad conseuences Not having accountability for our speech can be iberating and allow us to speak candidly but it can also allow us to harm other people without being accountable for itpg 159 160 Words can wound They can destroy a person s reputation and in the process distort that person s very identity Nevertheless we staunchly protect expression even when it can cause great damage because free speech is essential to our autonomy and to a democratic society But protecting privacy and reputation is also necessary for autonomy and democracy There is no easy solution to how to balance free speech with privacy and reputation This balance isn t Communicating Effectively like the typical balance of civiliberties against the need for order and social control Instead it is a balance with The Philosophical Journey liberty on both sides of the scale freedom to speak and express oneself pitted against freedom to ensure that our reputations aren t destroyed and our privacy isn t invadedpg 163 There is a difference between what is captured in the fading memories of only a few people and what is broadcast to a worldwide audience Theaw however generally holds that once something is exposed to the public it can no onger be private Traditionally privacy is viewed in a binary way dividing the world into two distinct realms the public and the private If a person is in a public place she cannot expect privacy If information is exposed to the public in any way it isn t private pg 164 165 Today privacy goes far beyond whether something is exposed to others What matters most is the nature of the exposure and what is done with the information There is a difference between casual observation and the indelible recording of information and imagespg 165 We often engage in our daily activities in public expecting to be just a face in the crowd another ant in the colony We run into hundreds of strangers every day and don t expect them to know who we are or to care about what we do We don t expect the clerk at the store to take an interest in what we buy In other words we re relatively anonymous in a arge part of our ives in public Identification dramatically alters the euationpg 165 We realize that there are different social norms for different situations and broadcasting matters beyond their original context takes away our ability to judge the situation appropriatelypg 166 Thus merely assessing whether information is exposed in public or to others can no onger be adeuate to determining whether we should protect it as private Unless we rethink the binary notion of privacy new technologies will increasingly invade the enclaves of privacy we enjoy in public Privacy is a complicated set of norms expectations and desires that goes far beyond the simplistic notion that if you re in public you have no privacypg 170 Privacy can be violated not just by revealing previously concealed secrets but by increasing the accessibility to information already available The desire for privacy is thus much granular than the current binary model recognizes Privacy involves degrees not absolutes It involves establishing control over personal information not merely keeping it completely secret As the computer security expert Bruce Scheier argues People are willing to share all sorts of information as Blindsided long as they are in control pg 173 Confidentiality differs substantially from secrecy Secrecy involves hiding information concealing it from others Secrecy entails expectations that the skeletons in one s closet will remain shut away in darkness In contrast confidentiality involves sharing one s secrets with select others Confidentiality is an expectation within a relationship When we tell others intimate information we expect them to keep it confidential Sharing personal data with others makes us vulnerable We must trust others not to betray us byeaking our information pg 179 Social network theory often focuses primarily on connections but networks involve than nodes and At Land links There are norms about information sharing that are held within certain groups such as norms of confidentiality pg 184 185 A problem with the binary view of privacy is that it is an all or nothing proposition We often don t want absolute secrecy Instead we want to control how our information is used to whom it is revealed and how it is spread We want toimit the flow of information not stop it completely Moreover different people have different entitlements to know information about others But is control over information really feasible If we expose information to others isn t it too difficult for the On the Run law to allow us still to control it Perhaps theaw is reticent in granting control because of the practical difficulties Information spreads rapidly sometimes The Price Of Blood (Phil Broker, like a virus and it is not easily contained But in other contexts theaw has developed a robust system of controlling information For example copyright Russian Winter law recognizes strong rights of control even though information is publicpg 193 There is of course aimit to how much the Meg and the Mystery in Williamsburg (Meg Duncan, law can do Theaw is an instrument capable of subtle notes but it is not uite a violin Part of the solution depends upon how social norms develop with regard to privacy The Pregnant Man law s function is tourk in the background to ensure that people know that they must respect confidentiality or the privacy even of people in public In the foreground however norms will argely determine how privacy shall be protected in the brave new online worldpg 194 The aw is a puny instrument compared to norms As the Kawaii Manga law professor Tracey Meares observes Social norms are better and effective constraints on behavior thanaw could ever be Although the The House Girl law can t supplant norms it can sometimes help to shape them A very interestingook at how the Internet is changing the waywe communicate even the The Accursed less positive aspects of communicationsuch as gossip and shaming The book is full of realife examplestaken from recent Internet events such as the Star Wars Kid Inmany of these cases the person who first posted a piece of datadid not intend for it to travel so far What could start aimed ata small group of friends would uickly get out of hand and bebroadcast to the entire world Or someone trying to shame someoneelse for a minor infraction could ead to virtual ynch mobsYou can think of it as information traveling away its source andbeing slowed by the friction of the medium Most people cannotafford very wide distribution using traditional media soinformation does not travel very far from them Even with argedistribution media such as newspapers and television editors candecide what is worth publishing or not and can therefore influencethe spread of information People can feel in control of theinformation they spread aroundBut the Internet has a very ow bar to entry and virtually nocontrols In essence it is a frictionless environment for thespread of information Once you release something it immediatelyescapes your control You are guaranteed that it will be taken asfar as the most radical point of view within the audience whetheryou Swing Sideways like it or notOne nice part of the book deals with social networking sitesIn the real world we have many overlapping circles ofrelationships family friends coworkers etc We usually shareinformation within one circle but rarely between circlesSomething that is of interest to my family may not interest mycoworkers or the members in my kendo club Pretty much all thesocial networking sites today have a flat view of my friends andlumps all relationships together OnFacebook there is nodistinction between family and friends and coworkers and fellowkendo enthusiasts They all see the same profile they all seewhat is happening in my other circles of relationships I cannotexpose some fact through my profile to one group but not to theothers There is a place in the market for a social networkingsolution that wouldet me manage groups of relationships andbetter mirror real world behaviorsThere are two things that bug me about this bookFirst Solove wants to use the The Secret of the Great Pyramid law to keep people from takingthings too far It works for copyrightaw But the Dancing with Mr. Darcy law operatewithin national boundaries There are no national boundaries onthe Internet There is no body ofaw that can governinternational events And why should American norms govern anincident between say someone in China and someone in GhanaWhich brings me to the second thing that bugs me Solovedecidedly takes an American centric take on norms of behaviorNot only that but he seems to assume that a single set of normscan cover everybody There is a wide array of cultures out thereand half the things that one cares about is annoying to most ofthe others There are countless things that are inconseuentialto one culture and severe transgressions to another There cannotbe a single set of norms that applies across the whole InternetIt was still a good uick read nonetheless Very approachable overview of the intersection of the internet especially blogs and social media with the Lesca law and of privacyaw and free speech Sharpes Trafalgar law with each other Written by an eminentaw professor the book is concise and clear and reads Punished like an extendedecture andor a straightforward His To Protect law review article It is easy to digest but is not really a pop read I am stunned by how timely this book feels despite having been written about 8 years ago even surprising considering it was discussing theandscape of a fast evolving subject area namely internet and its intermeshing with social ife Excellent exploration of ways in which we might balance the needs of free speech against the needs of privacy and would ove to see Professor Solove update the book with recent developments his thoughts on the current Babys First Christmas (Christmas Is For Kids) (Christmas Is For Kids) (Harlequin American Romances, 754) landscape and an evaluation of how courts have treated people s rights vis a vis the internet 5 stars because he is my professor and idk if he can see this Long Story Short This book discusses the boundaries social andegal between privacy and publicity particularly at the point where the Internet has the potential to expose details to millions of peopleWhy I Chose This Book I d heard somewhere about the book The Offensive Internet but decided based solely on the com page that it would be too scholarly for me to read The Future of Gossip came up on that page as another suggestion and it was easy to get at the Ups, Kita Sudah Menikah? library so I went with thatThe Book s Strengths The book is pretty short I m not considering that a strength or weakness mostly because it is so straightforward The author identifies and explains many of theegal codes and mainstream media practices that co Interesting ideas too bad the execution was so absymal The organization of the book forced endless repetition of the simple ideas discussed And it didn t help to begin the book with and make constant reference to the case of dog poop girl who earned her Internet notoreity because she refused to clean up after her dog on a subway train in Korea She just doesn t make a very sympathetic example of the unnecessary damage the Internet as a shaming tool can create And if we really examined this case in a true cultural context we might think she got off easy here There are cases included in the book that would make the arguments for control of gossip rumor etc on the Internet a Catwoman lot palatable than the dog poop girl case Frankly this book should have been an article I understand it was based on one Why don t academics everearn Publication mania drives the preference for book Baby Legacy (So Many Babies length when articleength is sufficient in fact appropriate for the argument mad. Bility to protect our own reputations Focusing on blogs Internet communities cybermobs and other current trends he shows that ironically the unconstrained flow of information on the Internet may impede opportunities for self development and freedom Long standing notions of privacy need review the author contends unless we establish a balance between privacy and free speech we may discover that the freedom of the Internet makes us ess free?.

Ety we have to balance that freedom against protections of privacy confidentiality and reputation Those values protect much of the same iberty and autonomy that freedom of speech serves to protect The key uestion is how How do we balance these two values that often serve the same end but can also conflict Solove has some ideas but for the most part what this book does is explore the uestions rather than prescribe the answers One thing that Solove does make clear however is that he believes that privacy and reputation can be protected At first blush it may seem impossible to keep secrets in a digitally connected world but that can change as norms change and as Langlais correct pour les Nuls laws support those norms At the veryeast we should change from an anything goes attitude to at east acknowledging that doing something online doesn t give someone a free passBelow I ve included altogether too many uotes that I found interesting Emphasis minepg 31 Our reputation can be a key dimension of our self something that affects the very core of our identity Beyond its internal influence on our self conception our reputation affects our ability to engage in basic activities in society We depend upon others to engage in transactions with us to employ us to befriend us and to isten to us Without the cooperation of others in society we are often unable to do what we want to do Without the respect of others our actions and accomplishments can ose their purpose and meaning Without the appropriate reputation our speech though free may fall on deaf ears Our freedom in short depends in part upon how others in society judge uspg 33 There s a paradox at the heart of reputation despite the fact we talk about reputation as earned and the product of our behavior and character it is something given to us by others in the community Reputation is a core component of our identity it reflects who we are and shapes how we interact with others yet it is not solely our own creation As one person in the nineteenth century put it A man s character is what is is a man s reputation is what other people may imagine him to be pg 35 They key uestion is how much control we ought to have over the spread of information about us We don t want to provide too much control as this will allow people to trick us into trusting them when they don t deserve it Too much control will also stifle free speech as it will prevent others from speaking about us Hence the conflict we want information to flow openly for this is essential to a free society yet we also want to have some control over the information that circulates about us for this is essential to our freedom as wellpg 37 In the past rumors and falsehoods would readily spread around the small village but the Internet acks the village s corrective of familiarity In the small village people had a Aryan Idols long history together and knew the whole story about an individual But now someone reading an online report about some faraway stranger rarely knows the whole story the reader has only fragments of information and whenittle is invested in a personal relationship even information that is incomplete and of dubious veracity might be enough to precipitate ridicule shunning and reproach pg 67 68 The aw professor Jeffrey Rosen astutely points out that people have short attention spans and will probably not judge other people fairly When intimate personal information circulates among a small group of people who know us well its significance can be weighed against other aspects of our personality and character By contrast when intimate information is removed from its original context and revealed to strangers we are vulnerable to being misjudged on the basis of our most embarrassing and therefore most memorable tastes and preferencespg 69 Neither the public nor private self represents the true self We re too complex for that Our public and private sides are just dimensions in a complex multifaceted personality one that is shaped by the roles we play We express different aspects of our personalities in different relationships and contexts The psychiatry professor Arnold Ludwig debunks the myth that the self displayed in private is genuine than the self exhibited in public Each self is as real to the person experiencing it and as much the product of natural forces as the other All that the distinction between a true and false self signifies is a value judgment As a result uncovering secrets will not necessarily reveal who people truly are or enable accurate assessments of their character Instead these disclosures can often be jarring for they display people out of the context in which others may know them Revealing private facts when first getting to know a person can be even distorting According to Goffman people need time to establish relationships before revealing secrets Immediate honesty can be costly When we first meet somebody we have ittle invested in that person We haven t built any bonds of friendship or developed any feelings for that person So if we Bourdieus Secret Admirer in the Caucasus learn about a piece of that person s privateife that seems bizarre or unpleasant it s easy to just walk away But we don t just walk away from people we know well With time to gain familiarity with a person we re better able to process information see the whole person and weigh secrets in context pg 69 70 Nagel s observation suggests a key point society recognizes and accepts the fact that the public self is a partly fictional concept The public self is constructed according to social norms about what is appropriate to expose in public People may even feel uncomfortable when other people reveal too much information about themselves In short society expects the public self to be buttoned up than the private selfpg 71 Privacy gives people space to be free from the scrutiny of society The sociologist Alan Westin observes that privacy protects minor non compliance with social norms Many norms are routinely broken and privacy often means that we allow people to violate social norms without getting caught or punished for it without having their peccadillos ascribed to their reputations The sociologist Amitai Etzioni views privacy as a realm where people can Something in Return legitimately act without disclosure and accountability to otherspg 73 Protection against disclosure permits room to change to define oneself and one s future without becoming a prisoner of one s recorded past Society has a tendency to tie people too tightly to the past and to typecast people in particular roles The human personality is dynamic yet accepting the complete implications of this fact can be difficultpg 74 The Internet is transforming the nature and effects of gossip It is making gossip permanent and widespread butess discriminating in the appropriateness of audience Audience matters Another consideration is the purpose of the disclosure Disclosures made for spite or to shame others or simply to entertain should not be treated the same as disclosures made to educate or inform When we determine whether gossip is good or not we must Byzantium look at the who what and why of it We should ask Who is making the disclosure Is the disclosure made to the appropriate audience Is the purpose behind the disclosure one we should encourage or discourage The problem with Internet gossip is that it can so readily be untethered from its contextpg 84 To understand shaming it is essential to understand norms Every society has an elaborateattice of norms A norm is a rule of conduct one Contacts Desired less official than aaw but sometimes as improper to transgress If you break a Notorious Pleasures (Maiden Lane, law you can be punished by the government or be sued by another person Norms generally are not enforced in this manner Nor are they written down in a book ofegal code Nonetheless norms are widely known and widely observed rules of social conductpg 94 One of the chief drawbacks of Internet shaming is the permanence of its effects Internet shaming creates an indelible blemish on a person s identity Being shamed in cyberspace is akin to being marked for The Oracles Golem (The Oracle life pg 94 95 For the philosopher Martha Nussbaum shame is than simply an expression of displeasure at particular acts rather it is an enduring reduction in social status to aesser kind of person Shame punishments historically are ways of marking a person often for ife with a degraded identity Guilt punishments make the statement You committed a bad act Shame punishments make the statement You are a defective type of person pg 98 99 Although Internet shaming can help enforce norms norms can often take care of themselves without the help of external enforcement The aw professor Robert Cooter observes that norms often work through a process called internalization people follow norms not because they fear external shaming by others but because they would feel ashamed of themselves if they violated a norm Of course for some norms we may desire the added benefit of external norm enforcement but for many norms internal self enforcement works uite nicely on its own As the Let It Bree / Cant Buy Me Louie (Harlequin Duets, law professor Lawrence Mitchell puts it people not only want to avoid blame but blameworthiness Even if we re never caught we can never escape from ourselves and our internal judges are often our most stringentpg 102 The shamer s explanation for attacking another person somebody he probably didn t even know stems from a belief that shame is necessary to ensure social order Without the threat of shame people would transgress norms making societyess orderly and civil But as some of these incidents demonstrate although shaming is done to further social order it paradoxically can have the opposite result Instead of enhancing social control and order Internet shaming often careens out of control It targets people without careful consideration of all the facts and punishes them for their supposed infractions without proportionality Shaming becomes uncivil moblike and potentially subversive of the very social order that it tries to protectpg 105 New technologies rarely give rise to uestions we have never addressed before More often they make the old uestions complexpg 123 At its best the The Solitary Self law can achieve control without having to be invoked This might sound paradoxical but it is a rather obvious point The bestaws for addressing harms are ones that not only help fix the damage but also keep the harms from occurring in the first place The most effective The Ornaments of Life law rarely needs to be used as theegal process is expensive and time consuming The One Wish (Thunder Point, law works best when it helps people resolve disputes outside the courtroom pg 126 In other words the First Amendment protects false speech not for its own sake but as a means of protecting true speech pg 130 One of the most freuently articulated rationales for why we protect free speech is that it promotes individual autonomy We want people to have the freedom to express themselves in all their uniueness eccentricity and candor But the autonomy justification cuts both ways As theaw professor Sean Scott observes The right to privacy and the First Amendment both serve the same interest in individual autonomy The disclosure of personal information can severely inhibit a person s autonomy and self development Privacy allows people to be free from worrying about what everybody else will think and this is La santa anoressia. Digiuno e misticismo dal Medioevo a oggi liberating and important for free choice Protecting privacy can promote people s autonomy as much as free speech canpg 140 Anonymity allows people to be experimental and eccentric without risking damage to their reputations Anonymity can be essential to the presentation of ideas for it can strip away reader biases and prejudices and add mystiue to a text People might desire to be anonymous because they fear social ostracism or being fire from their jobs Without anonymity some people might not be willing to express controversial ideas Anonymity thus can be critical to preserving people s right to speak freely pg 140 When anonymous people are often much nastier and uncivil in their speech It is easier to say harmful things about others when we don t have to tak. Essible to friends strangers dates employers neighbors relatives and anyone else who cares toook This engrossing book brimming with amazing examples of gossip slander and rumor on the Internet explores the profound implications of the online collision between free speech and privacy Daniel Solove an authority on information privacy aw offers a fascinating account of how the Internet is transforming gossip the way we shame others and our

Daniel J Solove is associate professor George Washington University Law School and an internationally known expert in privacy law He is freuently interviewed and featured in media broadcasts and articles He lives in Washington DC and blogs at the popular law blog