G.E.R. Lloyd: Early Greek Science Thales to Aristotle



G.E.R. Lloyd Û 4 review

Dological observa tion n the diagnosis of disease The fourth century astronomers carried the numerical appli cations of the Pythagoreans to a larger proving ground the heavens Astronomy was studied for practical reasons determining the farmer s year and regulating the calender but The Succubus it was Plato who contributed the most by applying mathematics to the under standing of natural phenomena and physical order While Plato established the first methodological principle of the early Greeks Aristotle provided the second Aristotle advocated thedea of empirical research to the process of The Bitchy Waiter: Tales, Tips Trials from a Life in Food Service inves tigation His book the Organon details the structure of his axiomatic deductive system He felt that the aim of natural science was to reveal causes of natural phenomena Aristotle contributed to numerous areas of thoughtncluding biology meteorology and physics His founding of the Lyceum established a center for research which far exceeded any other previous attempt Book two begins with the Hellenistic period 322 122 BC This period benefited from the cultural policies of the Ptole mies who granted financial support for scientific Dictionary of Misinformation inuiries Theophrastus of Eresus and Strato of Lampsacus succeeded Aristo tle as heads of the Lyceum Theophrastus did not conduct experi ments but was the first todentify a mineral product as fuel His major contributions were collecting and classifying species of animals and plants In contrast Strato used experimentation than any other Greek for Rosettas Dress Mess (Tales of Pixie Hollow, investigation for example he attempted to prove experimentally that falling bodies acceler ated Hellenistic mathematics proved to be the most permanent and lasting contribution of all Greek thought Euclid s Elements employed a deductive systemn the first mathematical text book and Shadowtech (Shadowrun, 7110) by Karl Wu (1993-01-09) is stilln use today Other Hellenistic mathematicians suc cessfully applied math to new fields Archimedes studied statics and problems of the lever Eratosthenes applied math to geography and made a close determination of the circumference of the earth and Appolonius studied and coined the terms ellipse hyperbola and parabola Hellenistic astronomy expanded on Eudoxes previous system of concentric spheres Aristarchus was the most successful of the astronomers with his heliocentric model of the heavens Hippar chus also contributed with his development of observational devices such as the dioptra for sighting and the astrolabe The problems with these astronomers were How to Build and Detail Model Railroad Scenes, Vol. 2 in their attempts to save the appearances so that observation and mathematical reasoning corresponded to each other In their struggle to do this they oftengnored key data that did not fit the theory Biology and Medicine of the Hellenistic Age was led by Herophilus of Chalcedon and Erasistratus of Ceos Herophilus studied anatomy and recognized that the brain was the center of the nervous system His main contribution was Archetype (Archetype, in the diagnostic value of the pulse Erasistratus used mechanicaldeas to explain organic processes He discovered the differences between the veins and arteries and knew the functions of the four main valves of the heart He failed n his conception that the veins carried air throughout the body Mechanics and technology were based on the five known de vices lever pulley wedge windlass and screw The motives for construction of these devices were for war machines practical use and amusement Technology often was slow to be diffused and taken advantage of The water wheel exemplified this because of the nsufficient water supply and the abundance of slave labor A successful use of technology that caught on uickly was the pompein rotary mill which used animals to grind grain The major failure of the Greeks The Wise Man's Fear (The Kingkiller Chronicle, Book 2) in this area wasn the fact that they did not use steam or wind as a motive power for their machines The main reason for lack of development was that society did not place a great emphasis on these fields Two great thinkers emerged n the second century AD who represented a culmination of Greek thought and science The first Ptolemy of Alexandria wrote the Almagest which. H century BC astronomers and Aristotle G E R Lloyd also nvestigates the relationships between science and philosophy and science and medicine;

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Topical but t hits all the high notes and keeps judgment to a minimum This might be an appropriate text for a class as long as t Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine is supplemented with serious material for focus Fascinating read I think thiss a really great starting point for people nterested n Greek science but you would still need to read specific works particularly on 4th My Dead Pets Are Interesting i ve used this andts companion volume with undergraduates and they are very good Not a substitute for Dicks Ancient Greek Astronomy or Neugebauer of course But good Heat It Up (Out of Uniform, introductins and very very readable excellent book Thiss a handy little ntroduction to what the ancients would have called natural philosophy They didn t have science the way we think of t today but they did still try to understand the natural world how Guys Like Girls Who . . . it works and howt came to be Lloyd writes clearly and gives a great understanding of what the ancient uestions were and how thinkers tried to come up with answers The book doesn t waste time trying to show all of the ways O Mistério do Lago (Inspetor Erlendur, in which the ancients were wrong by modern standards He doesn t deny this butnstead of making t the focus he focuses on the miraculous depth of understanding that the ancients did seem to have and the way that their scientific nuiries were able to reach a critical mass by the time of Aristotle This makes the great philosopher seem like a historical Tristes trópicos inevitability than some It was the awakening of the scientific mind the opening of the spirit of man to the nature ofnuiry and the beginnings of uantification and experimentation Early Greek Science Thales to Aristotle and Greek Science After Aristotle by GER Lloyd are studies of Greek science from Thales of Miletus Pax Indica in 585 BC to Galen of Pergamumn 180 AD and the decline of ancient science While there A Modest Independence (Parish Orphans of Devon, is no direct Greek translation of our word science Lloyd s thesis neverthelesss that modern day science began with the Greeks While the main thesis of both books are the same their ntent s different Book one concentrates on the development of two key methodological principles of the early Greeks The first Büyücü ve Cam Küre (Kara Kule, is an application of mathematics to the understanding of natural phenomena and the seconds the performance of empirical re search on defined problems Book two takes these principles and discusses the later Greeks successes and failures while working with them The books are structured topically with physics biology astronomy and mathematics being the four branches of science that are most closely studied Lloyd makes numerous anachronistic comparisons throughout the books often stating that a certain theory was successful He views some of the successes as would a presentist but also explores obvious failures The Witches of Eastwick (Eastwick in a diachronical sense He seems to make these relationships of success to sub stantiate his thesis that a line can be drawn from ancient to modern science Book one begins with Thales Anaximander and Anaximenes who are the Milesians that provide the first distinction between the natural and the supernatural Instead of creating a mythology to explain natural occurrences such as lightening and thunder they attempted to give naturalistic explanations The Milesians main contribution was that they grasped the problems that confronted them and attempted to account for the problem of change with their materialistic cosmological doctrines The Pythagoreans differed from the materialistic Milesians belief with their principle that all things were actually num bers With thisdea they were the first to uantify nature and develop deductive methods Roll Of Thunder, Hear My Cry Study Guide in mathematics They carried out empircal Gospođa (Suzana investigationsn acoustics and produced a cosmological system which removed the earth from the center The study of physical systems and natural science also yielded methodological advancements Those who studied the physi cal systems dealt with problems of change and debated on the reliability of pure reason and the senses The Hippocratic writ ers were the first to contend that disease was a natural phenome na They made case studies and performed metho. This study traces Greek science through the work of the Pythagoreans the Presocratic natural philosophers the Hippocratic writers Plato the fourt.

Became the most comprehensive treaty on astronomy He carried out the aims of his predecessors by advancing the value of mathematical calcu lation over observation Ptolemy described models for the moon and mercury and described the size of the epicycle eccentricity and the magnitude and duration of retrogradations for each pla net Problems that arise with Ptolemy are the same as with the fourth century Hellensitic astronomers EGGcellent Joke Book in that hegnored data to save the appearances The second great thinker was Galen of Pergamum His main work was Stealing Midnight (Beneath the Veil, in biology and medicine and he often applied this knowledge to his occupation as surgeon to the galdiators He correctlynterpreted the function of the liver heart and brain and refuted Erasistratus theory that the veins carried air He performed a vast amount of empirical research by dissecting and vivisecting animals The main motive of his research was to prove that nature did nothing without order or purpose Book two ends with a discussion on the decline of ancient science Lloyd contends that science did not abruptly end after 200 AD but gradually faded away Christianity became an obsta cle to the growth and development of scientific thought The Christians thought that truth came from neither observation nor reason but from divine The Poison Squad intervention With this attituden power pagan scientists had a difficult position to work against Lloyd says that Greek science never really died It was rediscovered by Kepler and Galileo who studied the works of Plato and Pythagoras Dragons Oath (Northbane Shifters, in their search for mathematical order Reviews on the books were extremely positive In an articlen The Classical Journal Vol72 October 1976 p 82 John Scar borough applauded Lloyd for separating ancient philosophy from science He said that Farrington and Stahl failed to consider the science of this period The American Historical Review Vol 77 December 1972 p 1421 Theres No Place Like D-Wing in a review on the first book of Lloyd s by Michael Jame son regretted that nothing on technology was covered He was positiven the treatment of the formulation of the problems of science and the use of empirical research and mathematical appli cation A review of book two n The Classical World Vol69 March 1976 p 407 by Stephen Waite states that these books provide a good compliment to Sarton s History of Science Waite feels that the modern concept of science s reached with the Hellenistic period and particularly with the mathematicians He recommends these books for any course Heaven (Heaven Sent, in ancient science My own thoughts on these books are also positive but I do have some criticisms First on the positive side I feel that Lloyd gives a well structured for the most part clear discus sion on the topic of Greek science I agree that modern day science began with the Greeks ast was they who established the methodological principles that underlie any systematic Monster, Vol. 3: The Perfect Edition inuiry My criticisms with his brief nclusion of technology as a subset of science He stated n the preface of book one that there was little Dancing With The Devil information on thenteraction between science and technology but the Tell Me Everything inclusion of the chaptern book two on applied mechanics and technology proved that there was Parental Guidance (Ice Knights, informa tion on this subject and I feelt warrants a separate discus sion Overall I now feel I have an appreciation for what the relatively few Greeks did Die Zeit, die uns bleibt in such a diverse and unknown area whichs what we call science They contributed The Complete Adventures of the Borrowers in fields from petrology to anatomy to applied physics and firmly established themselves as pioneers to the future generations who would even tually rediscover and reinterpret them With a diachronistic view these men were natural philosophers and mathematicians but with an anachronistic eye these men were scientists Thiss a classic that reuires an update based on scholarship from the past few decades A short readable summary of science before Claiming Cullen it was called science starting with the Presocratics and ending with Aristotle Amazingly good The construction of pointss so clear to understand Very helpful for novice n philosophy like me. E discusses the social and economic setting of early Greek science; and he analyzes the motives and ncentives of the different groups of writers.

University of Cambridge where he held various University and College posts first at King's College and then at Darwin From 1983 onwards he held a personal Chair in Ancient Philosophy and Science and from 1989 until retirement in 2000 he was Master of Darwin College He served as Chairman of the East Asian History of Science trust which is the governing body directing the work of the Needham Research Institute from 1992 to 2002 and afterward Senior Scholar in Residence at that InstituteProf Lloyd has held visiting professorships and lectured across the world in Europe France Italy Spain Germany Portugal Holland Belgium Greece in the Far East Fellow of the Japan society for the Promotion of Science in Tokyo in 1981 visiting professor at Beijing daxue in 1987 visiting professor at Sendai in 1991 and the first Zhu Kezhen Visiting Professor in the History of Science at the Institute for the History of Natural Science Beijing in 2001 in Australasia Hood Professor at the Department of Philosophy at the University of Auckland 2006 and in North America Bonsall professor Stanford in 1981; Sather professor Berkeley in 1984; AD White professor at large Cornell from 1990 to 1996; also lectured at Harvard Princeton the Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies Yale Brown University of Pennsylvania Pittsburgh UCLA Austin Chicago among other placesHe has served on the editorial committees of 10 journals including Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science Journal of the History of Astronomy Physis History of the Human Sciences Arabic Sciences and Philosophy Endoxa and Antiuorum Philosophia