Jerry Z. Muller: The Mind and the Market Capitalism in Western Thought



Ze those f superior abilities by way f differential reward in ther words Schumpeter thought that successful socialism would need to ditch its egalitarian aspirationsChapter 12 Keynes and MarcuseJohn Maynard Keynes thought government should stimulate economic activity during recessionsdepressions which would put people to work who would then spend which would create a demand for goods which would lead to investment which would create employment Keynes was very influential from the 1930 s through the 1970 s Herbert Marcuse got critical theory going He thought that social analysis must be based in prior political commitment thought that people who claimed to be satisfied with life needed to be schooled in all the ways they are actually dissatisfied in the hopes Bunless Oven: Bring Hope to Your Trying-To-Conceive Tears of bringingn a revolution and thought that capitalism repressed pleasure to unacceptable levels Basically Marcuse was me when I was in undergrad Marcuse thought that the fact that men and women feel happy was a problem because their professed happiness blinds them to the bondage Stomp the Elephant in the Office of living under totalitarian liberal democracies He thought that capitalism made people slaves to their desires Centralized controlf the economy should replace capitalism but Marcuse was uninterested in the specifics There's a Light at the Top of the Stairs of how this would be doneChapter 12 HayekFriedrich August von Hayek died in 1992 thought that government should step back because where it held great power it wouldften cater to vested interests Hayek thought that the long term widespread benefits The Very Busy Bee (Peek A Boo Pop Ups) of capitalism came at the expensef some established social groups who would try to regain power through force and politics All in all Hayek loved capitalismHayek argued that a planned economy cannot work because the government cannot coordinate the decentralized information DuMont Bildband Namibia: Natur, Kultur und Lebensart (DuMont Bildband E-Book) of a market conveyed by prices and government should not tell people what to value Inther words socialism would be both inefficient and totalitarian Hayek thought that the fact that the market lacked a higher moral purpose was a good thing because it allowed for people with differing values to cooperate Contrary to what today s ideologues assert Hayek saw a role for the welfare state and figured that it would grow as affluence increased The government could play a role in social insurance education regulation Mr. Snuff of working conditions buildings etc Hayek criticized Keynesianism arguing that it led to high inflation And he didn t like egalitarianism arguing that it would reuire intrusive measures and would destroy incentives Hayek had an interesting bit to say about democracy its greatest benefit comes not because it gives the people a voice but because it allows for peaceful transitionsf power If democracy had too much power economic interest groups would dominate the playing field Therefore liberal democracy should put limits Sordid Seduction on the rangef uestions that could be decided through the political process As he asked Is there really no In the Freud Archives other way for people to maintain a democratic government than by handingver unlimited power to a group Jacob and Sylvia of elected representatives whose decisions must be guided by the exigenciesf a bargaining process in which they bribe a sufficient number Is God a Delusion? of voters to support anrganized group f themselves numerous enough to utvote the rest Well said FA Hayek A decent but not great book The recycling Beyond The MBA Hype of uotes in different partsf the book was annoying The descriptions Amenities: Four Stories of Clifton Terrace of different intellectuals ideas was usually good though I think he founderedn Hegel and was not clear with some f the thers The plethora f footnotes made me think he was trying to find cover for his wn Our Iceberg is Melting : Changing and Succeeding Under Any Conditions opinions rather than give me facts about the various intellectuals profiled DoneIn 2010 I read this New York Times reviewf another ...I never saw another butterfly... of Jerry Muller s books Capitalism and the Jews Intrigued I looked up the author and his books including The Mind and the Market but at first I thought they were books about I don t know capitalism and finance so I gave them to my nephew because he is a Republican and I thought these would be books that were compatible with his views I hadffended him by something I wrote الحبر أسود...أسود! on Facebook something he took to mean I thought Republicansr maybe conservatives were prone to being spun that is that they belonged to a class Good Riddance: An Illustrated Memoir of Divorce of manipulable people anyway something that had come across as derogatory for which I was sorry So I thought these were books that might lend support to his political and economic views and yes reflect broadmindednessn my partThen a year Hot Highlanders and Wild Warriors or so later I came across the first book in a library and picked it up And it wasn t at all what I had thought It s history not financer whatever and it knocked my socks ff I reviewed it here That first book was a lot shorter thoughNot everybody is as excited about Muller as I am One f my friends with a background in finance said Capitalism and the Jews was boring Another friend a retired economist took a look at my behest and abruptly told me to stop reading it and get The Worldly Philosophers instead He took umbrage at all the philosophy which he thought had no place in learning about economics and would nly be confusing And then there s my Goodreads friend who acts like I ve stepped in something dirty by reading this particular book which to him is unremitting promotion f the capitalist agenda Yet I found a professional review a read from the Left that lauded this book More n reviews at the endI read this book because f what I was hearing people say about capitalism Now in the past that may not have been something I would have even noticed but now I did and I wondered why they said the things they did These weren t poor people but generally upper middle class educated people who had done Boy On A Unicycle: Confessions of A Young Man Trained to Be A Winner okayften than The Heart of Dead Cells: A Visual Making-Of okay That made them sound hypocritical as though applying their morals tothers but not to themselves and it 52 Poems for Men occurred to me they didn t know what they were talking about And neither did I This Facebook note is the first thing I ever wroten this subjectIn what follows I will lay A Companion to Jean Gerson out somef what I ve learned and what so impressed me I found this book to be an bjective exploration f modern thinking about capitalism set in history so I could tie it in with ther learning and telling it like it is always provocative A Publishers Weekly review said he wrote clear but uninspiring prose But for me the clarity and transparency are inspiringHow to begin learning What to read to learn about capitalism Books about money and the economy about who ruined what and who did what to whom come ut all the time They are Royal Intrigues and Amours, of Many Illustrious Persons: Related to the Court of St. J 's (Classic Reprint) often tendentious and the beginning learner would have try and ferretut where they re coming from and why they re saying what they re saying a seemingly endless and unrewarding task So I welcomed the author s introductory assurances that ideas about capitalism had been the subject f discussion for three hundred years already and that many new commentators are hitting familiar themes and not starting from scratch even when they think they areThe book then Muller starts by sketching historical ideas about commerce For both the early church and in classical Greek thinking commerce was bad According to such thinking there was nly so much wealth in the world and people who bought something somewhere and sold it for a higher amount elsewhere were stealing being leeches Chasing Eternity on the system For early Christianitynly what ne made r grew with ne s hands was acceptable But there the similarity between the church and Greek antiuity breaks down For the church money itself not nly commerce was evil and thus it s easier for a camel to go through the eye f a needle than for a rich man to get God s kingdom But for the Greeks it was poverty that corrupts ne needed wealth derived from war and pillage and also from slave labor that sounds like a permanent holocaust to avoid corruption The Editing Reality TV: The Easily Accessible, High-Paying Hollywood Job That Nobody Knows about other major traditionf European antiuity Rome with its system The Anatomy of Violence: The Biological Roots of Crime of laws and its protectionf private property nearly points forward The historical Crazy Town: The Rob Ford Story overview gets us up through Hobbes Leviathan and his precursorsf 17th century vintage who used argument and ridicule against religious claims to political power They also saw the Greek civic tradition as pitting persons and nations against each UP other insteadf which in their Cuisines From The World opinions nations should establish secular sanctuaries for peaceful coexistence intellectual advancement and the developmentf prosperityHobbes aim was no less than to turn the prior value system upside down Think the seven deadly sins From the new perspective that was a view that had served to keep people in their place The new paradigm was advancement via self interest Now greed and envy might be transmuted into motivation and desire and seeking pride into self esteem and so n It all worked something like thisThus Vice nursed IngenuityWhich join d with Time and IndustryHad carry d Life s ConvenienciesIt s real Pleasures Comforts EaseTo such a Height the very PoorLived better than the Rich before From Mandeville s 1714 satirical poem The Grumbling Hive also uoted in the bookHobbes et al were springboards to the 18th 20th century figures who are the book s main focus First comes Voltaire whom the author sees as a transmitter than an riginator The Soul of a Writer: Intimate Interviews with Successful Songwriters of the new ideas Voltaire was an early intellectual philosophe whoperated in the marketplace Neeyum naanum of ideas and sought to influence that new entity publicpinion People still largely men met in reading clubs and in lodges and gained understanding f government activities intellectuals tried to influence them as well as monarchs For Voltaire peace not wealth was the goal f the marketplace with self interest a lesser danger than religious zealotry that had fueled the devastating European civil wars Shirtless Bear-Fighter! of recent centuries I ve used my reviewf Candide as Jake's Birthday Threesome: An MFF Erotica Story opportunity to talk about Voltaire so won t say here except that Voltaire was not the last to pursue his self interest improperly using new knowledge to which governments hadn t yet caught up to manipulate and defraudthersAnd that leads to the proper role f governments according to Adam Smith His reputation notwithstanding the invisible hand was just ne part The Ant and the Elephant: Leadership for the Self: A Parable and 5-Step Action Plan to Transform Workplace Performance of his vision The visible handf government in Ideas in Food: Great Recipes and Why They Work onef its roles was to keep individuals from manipulating the market to their When the Heavens Smile own advantage Naturally workers would try to raise wages higher than the market could bear and manufacturers would try to keep wages artificially low Governments should keep either from happening and keep the marketplace humming along But since employers had power effort was needed to make them behave See my uote from p 64 below to the effect that wage earners are the majorityf any country and their welfare was the prime concern f economic policy according to SmithAdam Smith was from Scotland a crucible f intellectual advance in the 18th century Before centralized government reached the Gaelic speaking Highlands the default system there consisted Nostradamus: The Complete Prophecies for the Future of clans each with a chieftain who wielded absolute political and military power at the top which sounds pretty much like warlords and in Smith s day the clans were pacified along with the suppressionf the Jacobite rebellion The Scotland The Game Plan: The Men's 30-Day Strategy for Attaining Sexual Integrity of his day also was comprisedf cosmopolitan lowlands areas as well as rural areas where the feudal system still held sway and where landlords still held dominion You Are a Goddess: Working with the Sacred Feminine to Awaken, Heal and Transform over their tenants Smith could compare and contrast the livesf relatively free people in the economically advanced areas with those who were still subjugatedAdam Smith was a liberal in both modern senses Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology of the word He wanted the market to work its transformationn people and society and his goals were progressive maybe radical to free people from subjugation and abject poverty But his rhetoric which sought to David Goodis: Five Noir Novels of the 1940s 50s overturn much conventional thoughtf his day was such that he still holds iconic sway for many as a Milton Friedman type conservative That s changing though Here s a great 2010 New Yorker piece by Adam Gopnik that s in the same vein as Muller s expositionJustus M ser a contemporary f Adam Smith lived and wrote in a little country called Osnabr ck east f Holland and surrounded The Art of Syntax: Rhythm of Thought, Rhythm of Song on itsther three sides by Prussia The author includes M ser who is little known as a prototypical conservative ne who was rooted in his country and loved it and so didn t seek radical solutions to its plight Although M ser could see that exports would increase local wealth products coming in from abroad were in his eyes spreading the virus f the encroaching new economy whether through mom and pop shops in town r peddlers in the countryside He wanted to forestall his society s dissolution power and wealth becoming divorced from land wnership honor and pride How Do You Feed a Hungry Giant?: A Munch-and-Sip Pop-Up Book of place from guild membership For example there was pressure to allow menf illegitimate birth into guilds but for M ser letting bastards in would collapse the rungs Conventional Love on which honor and status rested and destroy the caste like levels supporting society feudal society being mostly static with no rung climbing allowed and stricturesn holding Abducted and Enslaved for the Talistaun ontone s current rung Another change was that the locals began migrating across the Dutch border in the summer to pick crops for the advanced and wealthier economy next door Having money as a result they married earlier instead f having to wait until they inherited cottage and subsistence farm from their fathers So no. Rket is a remarkable history f how the idea f capitalism has developed in Western thoughtRanging across an ideological spectrum that includes Hobbes Voltaire Adam Smith Edmund Burke Hegel Marx and Matthew Arnold as well as twentieth century communist fa.

The content was 5 star but the presentation could have been engagingThe format was strictly chronological discussing each economisteconomic concept in turn This made it pretty dry going until the 19th century when the disparate ideas started coming together to explain the basis f contemporary capitalism All the sections The Unblocked Collection on the 20th century were uite rivetingIt was fascinating to see how the economic theoriesf Her Barbarian Master: Forbidden Love of Hegel Marcuse Lukacs etc fit within their broader writingn critical theoryAs the authors note Much Terrifying Technique for Guitar of the story we have told fallsutside the boundaries Awakening to You Trilogy of modern academic disciplines and their respective histories Contemporary economics focusesn issues A Palette for Murder of efficiency in allocation political sciencen the institutions Galactic Sibyl Sue Blue of governmental power political theoryn uestions Dark Deeds of justice sociologyn social groups as defined by interactions utside the marketThis makes the book a great read for sociologistscultural theorists who lack a basic knowledge f economics Like me Who failed high school economics by ne point and never bothered to try it at collegeI m very glad I read it and I m uite inspired to try some economic theory good for the intellectual tradition f capitalism even if the author seemed a little bit right wing in an intelligent sort Hachi: The Truth of The Life and Legend of the Most Famous Dog in Japan of way Also he spends too much time talking about marx s anti judiasm and seems to paint schumpeter as a celebritytherwise good for background knowledge Taming the Wild Captain of the philosophical debates around the market and capitalism Excellent bookn economic philosophy and thought that is accessible to the non professionallayman Very engaging historical read that still provides good insight Arab Women Rising onto the whys and howsf thought A Chinaman's Chance: The Chinese on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier on the market from a Western perspective Too bad stars aren t available as this book would deserve them all Mynly complaint is nit picking sometimes the author repeats himself But since this is a fairly deep topic some repetition for the reader is not a bad thing and the writing style is uite easy to followOther authors have written along the same lines such as Robert Heilbroner s The Worldly Philosophers but the depth and coverage f Muller s book ventures deeper and widerCapitalism has been revolutionary and as with any revolution there have been those who see it nly as a danger to the stability Southern Winterland of the institutions that preceded it They were right to worr Muller does for capitalism what Ferris did for cosmology in Comingf Age in the Milky Way showing how views around markets commerce trade etc have evolved throughout the ages It helped me Kestrel (Icarus Origins, organize mywn views around capitalism but they still are and will likely remain a jumbled mess The book is dense Muller provides in depth histories f each character s background but in case anyone is curious here s a summary Chapter 1 History Way back the church didn t like trade and most people figured that if someone gained wealth somewhere then someone must have lost wealth elsewhere So basically the accumulation f wealth was viewed as a bad thing unless you were a nobleman and took it from thers However as human wealth increased there came an economic need for money lending and trade So the Jews stepped in and in return for being hated by all they carried ut the important function Cosmic Dance of lending money and acting as middlemenAs time passed Grotius Hobbes Locke Spinoza 1600 s andthers tried to separate church and state envisioning a state that protected the rights f citizens to do as they please as pposed to a state that imposed morality n citizens from above As the conception f the state changed people came to defend the market as a means to freedomChapter 2 VoltaireVoltaire 1700 s defended the pursuit f wealth through markets and morally legitimized the consumption f wealth Before Voltaire luxury had been frowned upon for blurring class lines and corrupting civic virtue Voltaire didn t think that market activity was the supreme goal f life but he thought it was a good diversion from religious zealotry which had caused so many deaths Voltaire liked merchants and disliked the church To Voltaire self interest was likely to promote peace than fervent ideological commitment Compared to the altruistic crusade f forcibly saving Silence one s neighbor s soul even if it leaves his body in ruins the pursuitf wealth is a potentially peaceable pursuit and Maktub one that leavesne s neighbor content Voltaire got rich through England s growing financial industry but did so through shady dealings that led people to hate him He tried to save face by slandering the Jews According to Voltaire Abraham was so avaricious that he prostituted his wife for money David slew Goliath not to protect his people but for economic gain Herod did not complete the rebuilding f the temple because the Jews though they loved their sanctuary loved their money Chapter 3 Adam SmithAdam Smith wrote The Wealth f Nations in 1776 arguing that worldly happiness was a good thing a free market economy both nationally and internationally is the best way to improve everyone s standard Install of living and that through markets self interest can be steered towards the common good If you re thinkingf reading this book I assume you already know all about Smith He said some stuff about pins some Bleuets other stuff about emotions and thought that specialization though it wouldn t make us happiern the job would make us prosperous This was at a time when many people worried that rising wages and standards Home of living would lead to laziness and expensive goods would make Britain uncompetitive in the international economySmith was a nicer man than Voltaire He gave mostf his money to charity in secret and did not blame the Jews for the bad things in life Contrary to what many believe Smith was a big fan f altruism he just didn t think that it was sufficient to run ur economy given that it involves dealings with strangers who are unlikely to stir Siddhartha our empathy Also Smith saw a big role for the state and figured that as economies grew the state would grow as well enforcing laws providing for defence maintaining infrastructure and evenffering schoolingChapter 4 Justus M serM ser 1700 s saw that a market economy would erode his ideal traditional culture by imposing universal laws as Mde opposed to local norms and allowing for a egalitarian society aspposed to the virtuous Danb one in which a hierarchy allows people to know their place Where Smith saw that markets could liberate the poor from poverty M ser thought that liberation from poverty was not desirable as poverty produced virtueM ser was an anti Enlightenment conservative and made no bones about it in his mind intellectual rationalism could not provide knowledgef the deeper rationality Hrtiques of local historical experience M ser romanticized artisans and peasants and demonized shopkeepers and peddlersften Jews In his view people needed government policy to protect them from the temptation Solitude of buying products that they really didn t need However even to M ser a limited market was desirable because a bitf competition would keep prices in check Chapter 5 Edmund Burke Burke was the granddaddy Beloved of modern conservatism He agreed with Smithn most things but was conservative and Odysse opposed to government intervention Burke worried that we were coming to rely too heavilyn rational thought to Resentment Against Achievement organizeur affairs He recognized that many human institutions grow Nietzsche organically serving important purposes which may not be apparent to rationally minded hard nosed inuiry Therefore we must use reason with humility and recognize that the wisdom in established institutions may be hidden to us Thomas Sowell anyone Where we reform society we must do so cautiouslyBurke saw government intervention in the market which wasften blind to unintended conseuences as an example Confiteor of theverreaching Hitler of abstract reason In Burke s view the rolef the intellectual was to convince politicians and the public Patria of the long term beneficent effectsf acuisitiveness channelled through the competitive market The people didn t understand how they benefit from a competitive market so needed to be explicitly taught Chapter 6 HegelHegel early 1800 s knew that unless his fellow citizens could understand the rationale behind society s institutions they would feel alienated and unhappy Therefore he tried to rationally justify why institutions including the market were good for society By understanding the ethic Snobs of institutions individuals could feel at home within themHegel thought that institutions don t constrain humans but instead liberate them from base drives so that they can pursue the drivesf a higher rational ethical self The market is an ethical thing because it causes us to bend Nouvelles ourwn wills to the reuirement f thers Hegel thought that government should do everything Smith thought but that it should also intervene to level Dublinesca out boom and bust cycles and should inspect foodmedicineetc Chapter 7 Marx Marx 1800 s saw the povertyf the working class as an inevitable irreversible Elsa outcomef the market He felt that intellectuals had a duty to encourage the working class to revolt and figured that the Oblomov oppressive naturef capitalism would eventually lead to a communist revolution However he founded his ideas n faulty economic assumptions which both he and Engels later contradicted and neglected to note the improvements to working class life that took place as he was writing Das KapitalMarx viewed capitalism as exploitation and recast many f the Iliade old Christian critiuesf the market As he saw it money is fundamentally unproductive Knulp only those who live by the sweatf their brow truly produce and therefore not Antigone only interest but profit itself is always ill gotten In his view competition isolated people from eachther self interested motives could not give rise to genuinely moral behaviour and profits were essentially theftAs the industrial revolution disrupted the economy Marx looked around and interpreted the agony Maggots of a declining preindustrialrder as the birth pangs Montserrat of a postcapitalist future which he hoped to usher in Marx and his comrade Engels wanted to ditch the unplanned economy in favourf socialism whereby everything would be rationally planned and centrally Andromaque organized However Marx didn t say much about how to actuallyrganize this socialist economy Marx capitalized Canzoniere on anti Jewish sentiment bashing the Jews as a way to drive home his demonizationf capitalism arguing that the negative characteristics Assassins ! of Jews worshipping money etc were actually characteristicsf a market Bucoliques oriented society Chapter 8 Matthew ArnoldLike Marx Arnold 1800 s saw problems with capitalism but unlike Marx Arnold didn t seek to abolish it Instead he tried to convince politicians and the public that the virtues and gainsf capitalism were not ends in themselves but were simply means to a higher enriching existence He thought that the education system was the place to get this message across Chapter 9 Weber Simmel and Sombart late 1800 s 1900 sMax Weber was a nationalist and a social Darwinist who thought that successful competition in the world economy reuired the government to encourage capitalism Weber realized that workers will ften resent the economically powerful but counselled that capitalism was in their best interests Although capitalism leads people to pursue money at the expense f happiness it has no desirable alternative especially not socialism Weber criticized Marxism as fantasySimmel figured that markets produced tolerance because when people are focused Malavita on theirwn means they become less judgmental Djamilia of the ways in whichthers lead their lives Plus the competition f the marketplace aligns suppliers minds with the desires f third parties to win their business so encourages social integration A uote Simmel reminded his readers that money allowed for the cooperation Rhinocros of individuals who wouldtherwise have nothing to do with Flures one another Sombart thought that capitalism might produce a higher material standardf living but felt that it robbed people Vivante of culture ualityf life inner peace and their relationship to nature Sombart drew upon anti Semitism in his critiues Fictions of capitalismChapter 10 Luk cs and FreyerLuk cs thought capitalism alienated people by loosening social ties separating producers from consumers and degrading community Luk cs wanted to show workers that capitalism is not inevitable and men need not succumb to it Communism could replace it Freyer was basically Luk cs but thought that Nazism rather than Communism should replace capitalism However Freyer wasn t a racist he simply thought that Nazism could provide the sensef shared morality lacking in capitalism After WWII Freyer turned away from Nazism although he remained anti capitalist he thought that people should look to their families religions and professional identities to provide meaningChapter 11 Schumpeter Like Marx Joseph Schumpeter 1940 s thought capitalism would be superseded by socialism but unlike Marx Schumpeter thought this was a sad irony According to Schumpeter capitalism is a great economic arrangement but inevitably breeds resentment because it is disruptive and produces ineuality in society Schumpeter feared that socialism would be disastrous alienating the most productive citizens bringing about a decline in the standard Mde of living and leading to social conflict Thenly way that socialism could work would be to incentivi. Capitalism has never been a subject for economists alone Philosophers politicians poets and social scientists have debated the cultural moral and political effects f capitalism for centuries and their claims have been many and diverse The Mind and the Ma.

W the population shot up and a new class f poor people arose who existed utside the institutions f the ld society So change was scary as hell as were the intellectuals merchants f change who were plying reform minded monarchs with justification for it This chapter and the next Plucking Poetry from the Air onen Edmund Burke made sense for me Willow (Chronicles of Erla of the way modern conservatives like Thomas Sowell for instance rail at intellectuals when after all so it seemed that s what they themselves are But change was comingBurke initially seems to cut across current conceptionsf conservative and progressiveTheir historical circumstances can impact what it is conservatives want to conserve Progressives in America liberals in contrast want change Radicals left Three Trees Make a Forest or right from the pointf view f capitalism f course seek to upset the applecartBurke was brilliant as was Adam Smith but the circumstances On A Sunbeam: A Webcomic of his birth were different Insteadf being from up and coming Scotland he was from Ireland which had been exploited by England and kept down so as not to compete To himself he was English but to everybody else he was an Irishman He believed in the market economy his words in fact Are You Listening? often takingn a uasi religious tone but in his thinking he also relied Grace and Mary on the existing institutionsf society including the aristocracy to maintain Bumperboy Loses His Marbles order amidst the expanding freedom bestowed by the new economy So he deplored the East India Company s ravagingf India which today might sound leftist For Burke the issue was money men perating utside institutional control eviscerating an ancient society for their wn enrichment Here I learned the rigin Eden Burning of the term nabob remember that These nouveau riche returnednly to buy seats in parliament and spread corruption to the home nest Burke also was the first to predict the Terror that was to follow the French Revolution Walk of Shame on the basis that the intellectualsf the National Assembly had destroyed the societal institutions he thought were reuired to maintain Contraptions order Burke was less likely than Smith to approvef government intervention He believed in getting his hands dirty by participation in government and when taking The Hiding Place on his politicalpponents he tended to employ drama and hyperbole that has stylistic echoes still audible today in conservative speech And to balance Gopnik Breathless (Jesse, on Smith here he isn BurkeDespite their great faith in the benefits f ngoing economic change the innovators from Adam Smith n realized education and guidance would be needed for the emerging industrial working class But almost from the get go there arose ther intellectuals with Rousseau in the lead who saw the new system as making happiness impossible Modern man was fragmented reduced to a cog in the assembly lineAlienation cartoon f a man applying for a job He s saying to the prospective employer I m looking for a position where I can slowly lose sight f what I riginally set ut to do with my life with benefits The New Yorker s economic cartoons in On the MoneyEnter Hegel the great reconciler At fifty by which time he had read digested and to some extent synthesized the great writers Runaway Wolf Pups of the dayn political economy he published The Philosophy CORPORATE SUPERPOWER: Cultivating A Winning Culture For Your Business of Right which the author says has subseuently been expanded by his students lecture notes For him the market economy was the way to modernity For Smith commercial society to use his terminology had been the progenitorf positive character traits such as kindness self control thrift and working hard Hegel anticipated later thinkers in seeing what he called civil society as a reflection f the Protestant ethic He emphasized the role f institutions such as the family and law and thought people could rationally understand and embrace their beneficial effects Freedom wasn t doing whatever you felt like doing the good reuired guidance and unlike for Kant but perhaps foreshadowing today s cognitive psychology must become habitual He did not think duties were limitations imposed n the true selfIn his day the German speaking peoples lived in 300 separate polities His Lutheran family fleeing religious persecution had arrived in Stuttgart capital f the duchy f W rttenberg in the 16th century He was a member f the bureaucratic class incorporating clergymen and professors who were laboring to help the central monarch modernize For him it was a calling Their role was to care for the good De Odyssee van Drs. P of the state as a whole at a time whennly 5% f the populace was fully literate In his work he stood up against the reactionary landed nobility Junkers in whose interest it was to maintain the feudal system and those Romantic philosophers who were providing them with rhetorical cover and under the pressure f Napoleonic victories progress toward a constitutional monarch was madeMarx s father too was a bureaucrat and a respected member U.K. Kink (British Invasion of the bourgeoisie If not a religiously tinged calling his job may have been a life raft as he availed himselff society s new penness to leave traditional Jewish confines for civil society But after Waterloo their city came under Prussian control with its laws excluding Jews from the civil service The father appealed his case and was denied so that s when he converted eventually followed by the baptism f wife and children including Karl But like Burke and his Irishness the perception that Karl Marx was a Jew persisted Reconciliation was not in the cards for Marx After struggling with dilettantism always wanting to write about the last thing he d read he found his calling in the suffering f the working class He coined the pejorative term capitalism the name that stuck Marx went back to the concept f money as evil and capitalism was the rule On Elegance While Sleeping of money When the statusf workers changed his views didn t Playing Humphrey Bogart: A Bio-Bibliography on money related anti Jewish tropes present in Western thought since the church took the Jewsff the land in the 13th century and made them the money handlers that growing economies reuired Marx portrayed the commercial society that he condemned as Jewdom according to which everyone had now become what he called Jews But his rhetorical excesses made thers react later by trying to rescue capitalism from Jewdom And this underlying conflict about money and about usury and Jews does continue to resonate in society More I must leave until I ve read The Communist Manifesto But let me just state Marx considered the unplanned aspect f capitalism irrational so there s a continuing trope in economic thinking f the planned and unplanned aspect f the economy The X.Y.Z. of Love: Frank Answers to Every Important Question About Sex in Today's World one that also continues to resonateAnd now runningut Garden Revolution: How Our Landscapes Can Be a Source of Environmental Change of room I can t go into the later thinkers in the detail I want to in the review proper Arnold the critical but non alienated intellectual who saw the energizing potentialf the religious dissenters in England and worked to allow them into university And I saw how far back goes people s suspicion f what their children may be taught in school See below the Arnold uote from p 227 that I love n what living by ideas means uite Platonic I think in the regard for penness to new ideas See also my last status update from p 287 n a sense in which the Communist Luk ks and National Socialist Freyer paralleled each Edwardian Album other From the chaptern Schumpeter I gained a new perspective n FDR and n why efforts to address the great depression weren t working prior to WWII I met Keynes I got some understanding La Historia Secreta del Narco: Desde Navolato Vengo of his continuing impact Anti Jewish tropes came up again with him as did the notionf elitism Marcuse maybe I ll say below It was stunning to realize that was the very air I breathed in my youth I have something to say in connection with Hayek and will eventually put it in a comment Also he was a conservative liberal is that Greek to AmericansFor links to ther reviews see comment No 6 belowNow a summary statement about what I think about capitalism now I ve studied this book It will have to be rounded ut by later discussion In Gilead a character says heaven is when Heavenly Fragrance: Cooking with Aromatic Asian Herbs, Fruits, Spices and Seasonings old men and children can walk safely in the street If so this life is a little bitf heaven I can t knock that Desert Shadows: A True Story of the Charles Manson Family in Death Valley or be unhappy if it s spreading I feel that we are living through the nadirf Western conservatism in the past five years we have heard from and about alleged consevative intellectuals than we ever did in my life time but most f those from the increasingly shrill tone and mediocre content f the Salisbury Wrecking Ball or the Criterion to the exotic non sensef the alt right Thumb Notes Almanac: Hitchhiking the Marcellus Shale or the conspiracy rhetoric which permeates andf the critics Nowhere in Africa: An Autobiographical Novel of academic liberalism seems inchoate andpportunistic bent As the God of Death Dictates Volume 01 on making the mostf their new found visibility at the expense Sniper Training: FM 23-10 of precisely those virtuesf precision and discipline Misguided Truths: Part Two on which conservatism has tended to rest its case I am sure there are many conservatives who find this landslide betrays their tradition s principled reflectionsn means and ends but I am nowhere near knowledgeable A Criminal and an Irishman: The Inside Story of the Boston Mob-IRA Connection or patient enough to go and unearth them from the repetitious morassf mainstream conservative discourse Jerry Muller could act as a figurehead for those dissatisfied if conservative leaders and followers had much interest in restoring their dignity as it stands it seems likely that he will find his readership among the liberals and the The Irishman occasional leftist seeking a nuanced understandingf the ther side Muller presents his project as a history f Western Thought about capitalism understood in the broadest possible terms less about the particulars r the varieties than about the concept itself its emergence and transformation This would be very interesting but Muller s book falls well short from providing it it starts with XVIIIth century and in fact look as much at the thought f economists themselves as to that In the Ballpark of modern criticsf capitalism left and right The result is a highly selective picture uite biased toward Muller s Uncle Remus [Penguin Twentieth Century Classics] (Annotated) own brandf unorthodox conservatism see his article Capitalism and Ineuality in Foreign Affairs Escritos sobre el exilio of March 2013 for a primer After a short introduction we discover thepinion f and interactions with the market f a list The Song of the Sea of famous and less famous thinkers Voltaire Adam Smith Justus M ser Edmund Burke Hegel Marx Mathew Arnold Weber Simmel Sombart Luk cs Hans Freyer Schumpeter Keynes Marcuse and Hayek Germans and Anglosaxons dominate the debate but this focus allows a few less known names like Freyer and M ser to slip into the fold and the books main strength is probably to be sought in this insistencen including critics The Innkeeper's Wife of the market from both the Left and the far right the rightwing critiuef capitalism is rarely examined in its Carnage on the Committee own right to the point that modern conservatism is so entrenched in free market fundamentalism that none save a few Catholics seems to remember this tradition As a result Muller emphasises the Malignant Self-Love: Narcissism Revisited overlap between Left and Right criticsf capitalism not in pursuit Malignant Pied Pipers of Our Time: A Psychological Study of Destructive Cult Leaders from Rev. Jim Jones to Osama Bin Laden of somexy moronic reduction ie Jonah Goldberg not to subsume both under the evasive umbrella Drawers Of Powers From The Heavenlies of romanticism ie Isaiah Berlin but rather to show that the criticsf capitalism spring from the same source as capitalism itself in KIDNAPPING KILEY (A erotic tale of bondage, domination, sadism and masochism (bdsm)) other words that the market swn constitutive contradictions make their emergence and re emergence inevitable While most Tips Tricks For Keyholders of Muller s leftists seem to practice a blanket rejectionf capitalism Muller s conservatism also acknowledge the necessity آرت کالت Artcult - نشریه الکترونیکی of State intervention to curb and manage the inbuilt excessesf the market economy and might ffer tradition as a suitable counterpower to unbounded individualism To the uestion f Why the Left which young conservatives hopefully sometimes ask themselves Muller ffers little f the usual canards f resentment conformism and middle class pportunism but rather emphasise that those thinkers have something to MPreg: Gaylord Of The Forest (Gay Male Pregnancy) offer even to conservatives Muller wrote a bookn Capitalism and the Jews so that he Amano Shiro Art Works Kingdom Hearts offers in his introduction a nuanced and interesting genealogyf the Jew s centrality to the critiue f capitalism both as author and as scape goat Unfortunately this also warrants some f Muller s dishonest asides n Marx s jewish self hatred r Odd Billy Todd on Keynes alleged antisemitism On the whole the book falls shortf delivering a convincing history f the concept f market راوی بهاران or capitalism instead itffers a mosaic thinkers from disparate political Real Dogs Don't Whisper: Life Lessons from a Larger Than Life Dog - And His Owner! orientation whose ideas are in themselves uite fascinating Muller s prose in clear and concise and I think does a great jobf introducing and illustrating complex concepts for the lay person It is a book with an agenda but in its scope and balanced approach it might prove useful even to those who disagree Lucid but sometimes repetitive Great read Some uotes While the Christian and civic traditions were intrinsically suspicious f commerce the Roman civil law was not Rediscovered in the revival f learning in the twelfth century it became the basis Liber Lilith: A Gnostic Grimoire of civil lawn the European continent p 15 While the Christian and civic traditions were intrinsically suspicious f commerce the Roman civil law was not Rediscovered in the revival f learning in the twelfth century it became the basis Incest of the Trinity of civil lawn the European continent p 15 Market activity was valued not because it m This book is about the philosophical history The Bitchy Waiter: Life on the Other Side of the Menu of capitalism It s interesting to see for example exactly how and why capitalism has come to be associated with liberal and also with conservative pointsf view I recommend it very highly In fact I think it s about time for me to re read Scist and neoliberal intellectuals historian Jerry Muller examines a fascinating thread My Savior of ideas about the ramificationsf capitalism and its future implications This is an engaging and accessible history f ideas that reverberate throughout everyday lif.

FREE The Mind and the Market Capitalism in Western Thought author Jerry Z. Muller – cafe1919.org

Jerry Z. Muller ✓ 4 Summary

Jerry Z Muller is professor of history at the Catholic University of America in Washington DC